Buddhism Life And Change
Transformation and change are the essential features of life;...
Where Does The Root Of The Illusion Lie?
Now let us examine where illusion lies hidden from the view o...
Wang Yang Ming O-yo-mei And A Thief
One evening when Wang was giving a lecture to a number of stu...
Zen Under The Toku-gana Shogunate
Peace was at last restored by Iye-yasu, the founder of the To...
Man Is Bad-natured According To Siun Tsz Jun-shi
The weaknesses of Mencius's theory are fully exposed by anoth...
Life Change And Hope
The doctrine of Transcience never drives us to the pessimisti...
The Absolute And Reality Are But An Abstraction
A grain of sand you, trample upon has a deeper significance t...
The Method Of Instruction Adopted By Zen Masters
Thus far we have described the doctrine of Zen inculcated by ...
The Characteristics Of Do-gen The Founder Of The Japanese So To Sect
In the meantime seekers after a new truth gradually began to ...
Calmness Of Mind
The Yogi breathing above mentioned is fit rather for physical...
Hinayanism And Its Doctrine
The doctrine of Transience was the first entrance gate of Hin...
Zazen And The Forgetting Of Self
Zazen is a most effectual means of destroying selfishness, th...
Enlightened Consciousness Is Not An Intellectual Insight
Enlightened Consciousness is not a bare intellectual insight,...
Zen After The Downfall Of The Ho-jo Regency
Towards the end of the Ho-Jo period, and after the downfall o...
The Breathing Exercise Of The Yogi
Breathing exercise is one of the practices of Yoga, and somew...
If there be no individual soul either in mind or body, where ...
The Bad Are The Good In The Egg
This is not only the case with a robber or a murderer, but al...
Our Conception Of Buddha Is Not Final
Has, then, the divine nature of Universal Spirit been complet...
The Establishment Of The Rin Zai School Of Zen In Japan
The Lin Tsi school was started by Nan Yoh, a prominent
Thing-in-itself Means Thing-knowerless
How, then, did philosophers come to consider reality to be un...
The Disciples Under The Sixth Patriarch
Some time after this the Sixth Patriarch settled himself down at the
Pao Lin Monastery, better known as Tsao Ki Shan (So-kei-zan), in Shao
Cheu, and it grow into a great centre of Zen in the Southern States.
Under his instruction many eminent Zen masters qualified themselves
as Leaders of the Three Worlds. He did not give the patriarchal
symbol, the Kachaya, to his successors, lest it might cause needless
quarrels among the brethren, as was experienced by himself. He only
gave sanction to his disciples who attained to Enlightenment, and
allowed them to teach Zen in a manner best suited to their own
personalities. For instance, Huen Kioh (Gen-kaku), a scholar of the
Tien Tai doctrine, well known as the Teacher of Yung
Kia (Yo-ka), received a sanction for his spiritual attainment
after exchanging a few words with the master in their first
interview, and was at once acknowledged as a Zen teacher. When he
reached the zenith of his fame, he was presented with a crystal bowl
together with rich gifts by the Empress Tseh Tien; and it was in A.D.
705 that the Emperor Chung Tsung invited him in vain to proceed to
the palace, since the latter followed the example of the Fourth
The Teacher of Tien Tai (Ten-dai, A.D. 538-597), the founder
of the Buddhist sect of the same name, was a great scholar of
originality. His doctrine and criticism on the Tripitaka greatly
influenced the whole of Buddhism after him. His doctrine is briefly
given in the second chapter.
His Ching Tao Ko (Sho-do-ka), a beautiful metrical
exposition of Zen, is still read by most students of Zen.
After the death of the Sixth Patriarch (A.D. 713), the
Southern Zen was divided into two schools, one being represented by
Tsing Yuen (Sei-gen), the other by Nan Yoh (Nan-gaku.) Out of these
two main schools soon developed the five branches of Zen, and
the faith made a splendid progress. After Tsing Yuen and Nan Yoh,
one of the junior disciples of the Sixth Patriarch, Hwui Chung
(E-chu), held an honourable position for sixteen years as the
spiritual adviser to the Emperor Suh Tsung (A.D. 756762) and to the
Emperor Tai Tsung (A.D. 763-779). These two Emperors were
enthusiastic admirers of Zen, and ordered several times the Kachaya
of Bodhidharma to be brought into the palace from the Pao Lin
Monastery that they might do proper homage to it. Within some one
hundred and thirty years after the Sixth Patriarch, Zen gained so
great influence among higher classes that at the time of the Emperor
Suen Tsung (A.D. 847-859) both the Emperor and his Prime Minister,
Pei Hiu, were noted for the practice of Zen. It may be said that Zen
had its golden age, beginning with the reign of the Emperor Suh
Tsung, of the Tang dynasty, until the reign of the Emperor Hiao Tsung
(1163-1189), who was the greatest patron of Buddhism in the Southern
Sung dynasty. To this age belong almost all the greatest Zen
scholars of China.
There exists Luh Tan Fah Pao Tan King
(Roku-so-ho-bo-dan-kyo), a collection of his sermons. It is full of
bold statements of Zen in its purest form, and is entirely free from
ambiguous and enigmatical words that encumber later Zen books. In
consequence it is widely read by non-Buddhist scholars in China and
Japan. Both Hwui Chung (E-chu), a famous disciple of the Sixth
Patriarch, and Do-gen, the founder of the Soto Sect in Japan, deny
the authority of the book, and declare it to be misleading, because
of errors and prejudices of the compilers. Still, we believe it to
be a collection of genuine sections given by the Sixth Patriarch,
though there are some mistakes in its historical narratives.
(1) The Tsao Tung (So-to) Sect, founded by Tsing Yuen (died
in A.D. 740) and his successors; (2) the Lin Tsi (Rin-Zai) Sect,
founded by Nan Yoh (died in 744) and his successors; (3) the Wei Yan
(Yi-gyo) Sect, founded by Wei Shan (Yi-san, died in 853) and his
disciple Yen Shan (Kyo-zan, died in 890); (4) the Yun Man (Un-mon)
Sect, founded by Yun Man (died in 949); (5) the Pao Yen (Ho-gen)
Sect, founded by Pao Yen (died in 958).
During the Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-906) China produced,
besides the Sixth Patriarch and his prominent disciples, such great
Zen teachers as Ma Tsu (Ba-so, died in 788), who is probably the
originator of the Zen Activity; Shih Teu (Seki-to, died in 790), the
reputed author of Tsan Tung Ki (San-do-kai), a metrical writing on
Zen; Poh Chang (Hyaku-jo, died 814), who first laid down regulations
for the Zen Monastery; Wei Shan (Yi-san), Yang Shan (Kyo-zan), the
founders of the Wei Yang Sect; Hwang Pah (O-baku, died in 850), one
of the founders of the Lin Tsi Sect, and the author of Chwen Sin Pao
Yao, (Den-sin-ho-yo), one of the best works on Zen; Lin Tsi (Rin-zai,
died in 866), the real founder of the Lin Tsi Sect; Tung Shan
(To-zan, died in 869), the real founder of the Tsao Tung Sect; Tsao
Shan (So-zan, died in 901), a famous disciple of Tung Shan; Teh Shan
(Toku-san, died in 865), who was used to strike every questioner with
his staff; Chang Sha (Cho-sha, died in 823); Chao Cheu (Jo-shu, died
in 897); Nan Tsuen (Nan-sen, died in 834); Wu Yeh (Mu-go, died in
823); who is said to have replied, 'Away with your idle thoughts,' to
every questioner; Yun Yen (Un-gan, died in 829); Yoh Shan (Yaku-san,
died in 834); Ta Mei (Tai-bai, died in 839), a noted recluse; Ta Tsz
(Dai-ji, died in 862); Kwei Fung (Kei-ho, died in 841), the author of
'The Origin of Man,' and other numerous works; and Yun Ku (Un-go,
died in 902).
To the period of the Five Dynasties (A.D. 907-959) belong such
teachers as Sueh Fung (Set-po, died in. 908); Huen Sha (Gen-sha, died
in 908); Yun Man (Un-mon, died in 949), the founder of the Yun Man
Sect; Shen Yueh (Zen-getsu, died in 912), a renowned Zen poet; Pu Tai
(Ho-tei, died in 916), well known for his peculiarities; Chang King
(Cho-kei, died in 932); Nan Yuen (Nan-in, died in 952); Pao Yen
(Ho-gen, died in 958), the founder of the Pao Yen Sect. During the
Sung dynasty (A.D. 960-1126) appeared such teachers as Yang Ki
(Yo-gi, died in 1049), the founder of the Yang Ki School of Zen; Sueh
Teu (Set-cho, died in 1052), noted for poetical works; Hwang Lung (O
ryu, died in 1069), the founder of the Hwang Lung School of Zen;
Hwang Lin (Ko-rin, died in 987); Tsz Ming (Ji-myo, died in 1040); Teu
Tsy (To-shi, died in 1083); Fu Yun (Fu-yo, died in 1118); Wu Tsu
(Go-so, died in 1104); Yung Ming (Yo-myo, died in 975), the author of
Tsung King Luh (Shu-kyo-roku); Ki Sung (Kai-su, died in 1071), a
great Zen historian and author. In the Southern Sung dynasty (A.D.
1127-1279) flourished such masters as Yuen Wu (En-go, died in 1135),
the author of Pik Yen Tsih (Heki-gan-shu); Chan Hieh (Shin-ketsu,
flourished in 1151); Hung Chi (Wan-shi, died in 1157), famous for his
poetical works; Ta Hwui (Dai-e, died in 1163), a noted disciple of
Yuen Wu; Wan Sung (Ban-sho), flourished in 1193-1197), the author of
Tsung Yun Luh (Sho-yo-roku); Ju Tsing (Nyo-jo), died in 1228), the
teacher to Do-gen, or the founder of the So-to Sect in Japan.
To this age belong almost all the eminent men of letters,
statesmen, warriors, and artists who were known as the practisers of
Zen. To this age belongs the production of almost all Zen
books, doctrinal and historical.
Among the great names of Zen believers the following are
most important: Pang Yun (Ho-on, flourished in 785-804), whose whole
family was proficient in Zen; Tsui Kiun (Sai-gun, flourished in
806-824); Luh Kang (Rik-ko), a lay disciple to Nan Tsun; Poh Loh Tien
(Haku-raku-ten, died in 847), one of the greatest Chinese literary
men; Pei Hiu (Hai-kyu, flourished 827-856), the Prime Minister under
the Emperor Suen Tsung, a lay disciple to Hwang Pah; Li Ngao (Ri-ko,
lived about 806), an author and scholar who practised Zen under Yoh
Shan; Yu Chuh (U-teki, flourished 785-804), a local governor, a
friend of Pang Yun; Yang Yih (Yo-oku, flourished in 976), one of the
greatest writers of his age; Fan Chung Ngan (Han-chu an, flourished
1008-1052), an able statesman and scholar; Fu Pih (Fu shitsu,
flourished 1041-1083), a minister under the Emperor Jan Tsung; Chang
Shang Ying (Cho-sho-yei, 1086-1122), a Buddhist scholar and a
statesman; Hwang Ting Kien (Ko-tei-ken, 1064-1094), a great poet; Su
Shih (So-shoku, died in 1101), a great man of letters, well known as
So-to-ba; Su Cheh (So-tetsu, died in 1112), a younger brother of
So-to-ba, a scholar and minister under the Emperor Cheh Tsung; Chang
Kiu Ching (Cho-Kyu-sei, flourished about 1131), a scholar and lay
disciple of Ta Hwui; Yang Kieh (Yo-ketsu, flourished 1078-1086), a
scholar and statesman.
Of doctrinal Zen books, besides Sin Sin Ming by the Third
Patriarch, and Fah Pao Tan King by the Sixth Patriarch, the following
are of great importance:
(1) Ching Tao Ko (Sho-do-ka), by Huen Kioh (Gen-kaku).
(2) Tsan Tung Ki (San-do-kai), by Shih Ten (Seki-to).
(3) Pao King San Mei (Ho-kyo-san-mai), by Tung Shan (To-zan).
(4) Chwen Sin Pao Yao (Den-sin-ho-yo), by Hwang Pah (O-baku).
(5) Pih Yen Tsih (Heki-gan-shu), by Yuen Wu (En-go).
(6) Lin Tsi Luh (Rin-zai-roku), by Lin Tsi (Rin-zai).
(7) Tsung Yun Luh (Sho-yo-roku), by Wan Sung (Ban-sho).
Of historical Zen books the following are of importance:
(1) King teh Chwen Tan-Luh (Kei-toku-den-to-roku), published in 1004
by Tao Yuen (Do-gen).
(2) Kwan Tang Luh (Ko-to roku), published in 1036 by Li Tsun Suh
(3) Suh Tang Luh (Zoku-O-roku), published in 1101 by Wei Poh (I-haku).
(4) Lien Tang Luh (Ren-O-roku), published in 1183 by Hwui Wang
(5) Ching Tsung Ki (Sho-ju-ki), published in 1058 by Ki Sung
(6) Pu Tang Luh (Fu-O-roku), published in 1201 by Ching Sheu (Sho-ju).
(7) Hwui Yuen (E-gen), published in 1252 by Ta Chwen (Dai-sen).
(8) Sin Tang Luh (Sin-W-roku), published in 1280-1294 by Sui (Zui).
(9) Suh Chwen Tang Luh (Zoku-den-to-roku), by Wang Siu (Bun-shu).
(10) Hwui Yuen Suh Lioh (E-gen-zoku-ryaku), by Tsing Chu (Jo-chu).
(11) Ki Tang Luh (Kei-to-roku), by Yung Kioh (Yo-kaku).
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