Buddhism There Is No Mortal Who Is Non-moral Or Purely Immoral
The same is the case with the third and the fourth class of p...
Zen Under The Toku-gana Shogunate
Peace was at last restored by Iye-yasu, the founder of the To...
The Examination Of The Notion Of Self
The belief in immortality is based on the strong instinct of
Missionary Activity Of The Sixth Patriarch
As we have seen above, the Sixth Patriarch was a great genius...
Man Is Bad-natured According To Siun Tsz Jun-shi
The weaknesses of Mencius's theory are fully exposed by anoth...
The Mystery Of Life
Thus far we have pointed out the inevitable conflictions in l...
Thing-in-itself Means Thing-knowerless
How, then, did philosophers come to consider reality to be un...
Introduction Of Zen Into China By Bodhidharma
An epoch-making event took place in the Buddhist history of C...
The Beatitude Of Zen
We are far from denying, as already shown in the foregoing ch...
Personalism Of B P Bowne
B. P. Bowne says: They (phenomena) are not phantoms or
All The Worlds In Ten Directions Are Buddha's Holy Land
We are to resume this problem in the following chapter. Suff...
The Awakening Of The Innermost Wisdom
Having set ourselves free from the misconception of Self, nex...
The Disciples Under The Sixth Patriarch
Some time after this the Sixth Patriarch settled himself down...
Nature Favours Nothing In Particular
There is another point of view of life, which gave the presen...
Man Is Good-natured According To Mencius
Oriental scholars, especially the Chinese men of letters, see...
Pessimistic View Of The Ancient Hindus
In addition to this, the new theory of matter has entirely ov...
The Creative Force Of Nature And Humanity
The innate tendency of self-preservation, which manifests its...
The Resemblance Of The Zen Monk To The Samurai
Let us point out in brief the similarities between Zen and Ja...
Buddha Is Unnamable
Give a definite name to Deity, He would be no more than what ...
Difficulties Are No Match For The Optimist
How can we suppose that we, the children of Buddha, are put a...
Zen After The Downfall Of The Ho-jo Regency
Towards the end of the Ho-Jo period, and after the downfall of
the Regency in 1333, sanguinary battles were fought between the
Imperialists and the rebels. The former, brave and faithful as they
were, being outnumbered by the latter, perished in the field one
after another for the sake of the ill-starred Emperor Go-dai-go
(1319-1338), whose eventful life ended in anxiety and despair.
Although Zen was first favoured by the Ho-jo Regency and
chiefly prospered at Kama-kura, yet it rapidly began to exercise its
influence on nobles and Emperors at Kyo-to. This is mainly due to
the activity of En-ni, known as Sho-Ichi-Koku-Shi (1202-1280), who
first earned Zen under Gyo-yu, a disciple of Ei-sai, and afterwards
went to China, where he was Enlightened under the instruction of Wu
Chun, of the monastery of King Shan. After his return, Michi-iye
(Fuji-wara), a powerful nobleman, erected for him To-fuku-ji in 1243,
and he became the founder of a sub-sect of the Rin Zai, named after
that monastery. The Emperor Go-saga (1243-1246), an admirer of his,
received the Moral Precepts from him. One of his disciples, To-zan,
became the spiritual adviser of the Emperor Fushi-mi (1288-1298), and
another disciple, Mu kwan, was created the abbot of the monastery of
Nan-zen-ji by the Emperor Kame-yama (1260-1274), as the founder of a
sub-sect of the Rin Zai under the same name.
Another teacher who gained lasting influence on the Court is Nan-po,
known as Dai-O-Koku-Shi (1235-1308), who was appointed the abbot of
the monastery of Man-ju-ji in Kyo to by the Emperor Fushi-mi. One of
his disciples, Tsu-o, was the spiritual adviser to both the Emperor
Hana-zono (1308-1318) and the Emperor Go-dai-go. And another
disciple, Myo-cho, known as Dai-To-Koku-Shi (1282-1337), also was
admired by the two Emperors, and created the abbot of Dai-toku-ji, as
the founder of a sub-sect of the Rin Zai under the same name. It was
for Myo-cho's disciple, Kan-zan (1277 1360), that the Emperor
Hana-zono turned his detached palace into a monastery, named
Myo-shin-ji, the head temple of a sub-sect of the Rin Zai under the
It was at this time that Japan gave birth to Masa-shige (Kusu-noki),
an able general and tactician of the Imperialists, who for the sake
of the Emperor not only sacrificed himself and his brother, but by
his will his son and his son's successor died for the same cause,
boldly attacking the enemy whose number was overwhelmingly great.
Masa-shige's loyalty, wisdom, bravery, and prudence are not merely
unique in the history of Japan, but perhaps in the history of man.
The tragic tale about his parting with his beloved son, and his
bravery shown at his last battle, never fail to inspire the Japanese
with heroism. He is the best specimen of the Samurai class.
According to an old document, this Masa-shige was the
practiser of Zen, and just before his last battle he called on Chu
Tsun (So-shun) to receive the final instruction. "What have I to do
when death takes the place of life?" asked Masa-shige. The teacher
"Be bold, at once cut off both ties,
The drawn sword gleams against the skies."
Thus becoming, as it were, an indispensable discipline for the
Samurai, Zen never came to an end with the Ho-jo period, but grew
more prosperous than before during the reign of the Emperor
Go-dai-go, one of the most enthusiastic patrons of the faith.
The event is detailed at length in a life of So-shun, but
some historians suspect it to be fictitious. This awaits a further
As we have already mentioned, Do-gen, the founder of the
Japanese So To Sect, shunned the society of the rich and the
powerful, and led a secluded life. In consequence his sect did not
make any rapid progress until the Fourth Patriarch of his line,
Kei-zan (1268-1325) who, being of energetic spirit, spread his faith
with remarkable activity, building many large monasteries, of which
Yo-ko-ji, in the province of No-to, So-ji-ji (near Yokohama), one of
the head temples of the sect, are well known. One of his disciples,
Mei ho (1277-1350), propagated the faith in the northern provinces;
while another disciple, Ga-san (1275-1365), being a greater
character, brought up more than thirty distinguished disciples, of
whom Tai-gen, Tsu-gen, Mu-tan, Dai-tetsu, and Jip-po, are best known.
Tai-gen (died 1370) and big successors propagated the faith over the
middle provinces, while Tsu-gen (1332-1391) and his successors spread
the sect all over the north-eastern and south-western provinces.
Thus it is worthy of our notice that most of the Rin Zai teachers
confined their activities within Kamakura and Kyo-to, while the So To
masters spread the faith all over the country.
The Shoguns of the Ashi-kaga period (1338-1573) were not less devoted
to the faith than the Emperors who succeeded the Emperor Go-dai-go.
And even Taka-uji (1338-1357), the notorious founder of the
Shogunate, built a monastery and invited So-seki, better known
as Mu-So-Koku-Shi, who was respected as the tutor by the three
successive Emperors after Go-dai-go. Taka-uji's example was followed
by all succeeding Shoguns, and Shogun's example was followed by the
feudal lords and their vassals. This resulted in the propagation of
Zen throughout the country. We can easily imagine how Zen was
prosperous in these days from the splendid monasteries built
at this period, such as the Golden Hall Temple and the Silver Hall
Temple that still adorn the fair city of Kyo-to.
So-seki (1276-1351) was perhaps the greatest Zen master of
the period. Of numerous monasteries built for him, E-rin-ji, in the
province of Kae, and Ten-ryu-ji, the head temple of a sub-sect of the
Rin Zai under the same name, are of importance. Out of over seventy
eminent disciples of his, Gi-do (1365-1388), the author of Ku-ge-shu;
Shun-oku (1331-1338), the founder of the monastery of So-koku-ji, the
head temple of a sub-sect of the Rin Zai under the same name; and
Zek-kai (1337-1405), author of Sho-ken-shu, are best known.
Myo-shin-ji was built in 1337 by the Emperor Hana-zono;
Ten-ryu-ji was erected by Taka-uji, the first Shogun of the period,
in 1344; So-koku-ji by Yosh-imitsu, the third Shogun, in 1385;
Kin-Kaku-ji, or Golden Hall Temple, by the same Shogun, in 1397;
Gin-kaku-ji, or Silver Hall Temple, by Yoshi-masa, the eighth Shogun,
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