The Disciples Under The Sixth Patriarch

Some time after this the Sixth Patriarch settled himself down at the

Pao Lin Monastery, better known as Tsao Ki Shan (So-kei-zan), in Shao

Cheu, and it grow into a great centre of Zen in the Southern States.

Under his instruction many eminent Zen masters qualified themselves

as Leaders of the Three Worlds. He did not give the patriarchal

symbol, the Kachaya, to his successors, lest it might cause needless

quarrels amo
g the brethren, as was experienced by himself. He only

gave sanction to his disciples who attained to Enlightenment, and

allowed them to teach Zen in a manner best suited to their own

personalities. For instance, Huen Kioh (Gen-kaku), a scholar of the

Tien Tai doctrine, well known as the Teacher of Yung

Kia (Yo-ka), received a sanction for his spiritual attainment

after exchanging a few words with the master in their first

interview, and was at once acknowledged as a Zen teacher. When he

reached the zenith of his fame, he was presented with a crystal bowl

together with rich gifts by the Empress Tseh Tien; and it was in A.D.

705 that the Emperor Chung Tsung invited him in vain to proceed to

the palace, since the latter followed the example of the Fourth


The Teacher of Tien Tai (Ten-dai, A.D. 538-597), the founder

of the Buddhist sect of the same name, was a great scholar of

originality. His doctrine and criticism on the Tripitaka greatly

influenced the whole of Buddhism after him. His doctrine is briefly

given in the second chapter.

His Ching Tao Ko (Sho-do-ka), a beautiful metrical

exposition of Zen, is still read by most students of Zen.

After the death of the Sixth Patriarch (A.D. 713), the

Southern Zen was divided into two schools, one being represented by

Tsing Yuen (Sei-gen), the other by Nan Yoh (Nan-gaku.) Out of these

two main schools soon developed the five branches of Zen, and

the faith made a splendid progress. After Tsing Yuen and Nan Yoh,

one of the junior disciples of the Sixth Patriarch, Hwui Chung

(E-chu), held an honourable position for sixteen years as the

spiritual adviser to the Emperor Suh Tsung (A.D. 756762) and to the

Emperor Tai Tsung (A.D. 763-779). These two Emperors were

enthusiastic admirers of Zen, and ordered several times the Kachaya

of Bodhidharma to be brought into the palace from the Pao Lin

Monastery that they might do proper homage to it. Within some one

hundred and thirty years after the Sixth Patriarch, Zen gained so

great influence among higher classes that at the time of the Emperor

Suen Tsung (A.D. 847-859) both the Emperor and his Prime Minister,

Pei Hiu, were noted for the practice of Zen. It may be said that Zen

had its golden age, beginning with the reign of the Emperor Suh

Tsung, of the Tang dynasty, until the reign of the Emperor Hiao Tsung

(1163-1189), who was the greatest patron of Buddhism in the Southern

Sung dynasty. To this age belong almost all the greatest Zen

scholars of China.

There exists Luh Tan Fah Pao Tan King

(Roku-so-ho-bo-dan-kyo), a collection of his sermons. It is full of

bold statements of Zen in its purest form, and is entirely free from

ambiguous and enigmatical words that encumber later Zen books. In

consequence it is widely read by non-Buddhist scholars in China and

Japan. Both Hwui Chung (E-chu), a famous disciple of the Sixth

Patriarch, and Do-gen, the founder of the Soto Sect in Japan, deny

the authority of the book, and declare it to be misleading, because

of errors and prejudices of the compilers. Still, we believe it to

be a collection of genuine sections given by the Sixth Patriarch,

though there are some mistakes in its historical narratives.

(1) The Tsao Tung (So-to) Sect, founded by Tsing Yuen (died

in A.D. 740) and his successors; (2) the Lin Tsi (Rin-Zai) Sect,

founded by Nan Yoh (died in 744) and his successors; (3) the Wei Yan

(Yi-gyo) Sect, founded by Wei Shan (Yi-san, died in 853) and his

disciple Yen Shan (Kyo-zan, died in 890); (4) the Yun Man (Un-mon)

Sect, founded by Yun Man (died in 949); (5) the Pao Yen (Ho-gen)

Sect, founded by Pao Yen (died in 958).

During the Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-906) China produced,

besides the Sixth Patriarch and his prominent disciples, such great

Zen teachers as Ma Tsu (Ba-so, died in 788), who is probably the

originator of the Zen Activity; Shih Teu (Seki-to, died in 790), the

reputed author of Tsan Tung Ki (San-do-kai), a metrical writing on

Zen; Poh Chang (Hyaku-jo, died 814), who first laid down regulations

for the Zen Monastery; Wei Shan (Yi-san), Yang Shan (Kyo-zan), the

founders of the Wei Yang Sect; Hwang Pah (O-baku, died in 850), one

of the founders of the Lin Tsi Sect, and the author of Chwen Sin Pao

Yao, (Den-sin-ho-yo), one of the best works on Zen; Lin Tsi (Rin-zai,

died in 866), the real founder of the Lin Tsi Sect; Tung Shan

(To-zan, died in 869), the real founder of the Tsao Tung Sect; Tsao

Shan (So-zan, died in 901), a famous disciple of Tung Shan; Teh Shan

(Toku-san, died in 865), who was used to strike every questioner with

his staff; Chang Sha (Cho-sha, died in 823); Chao Cheu (Jo-shu, died

in 897); Nan Tsuen (Nan-sen, died in 834); Wu Yeh (Mu-go, died in

823); who is said to have replied, 'Away with your idle thoughts,' to

every questioner; Yun Yen (Un-gan, died in 829); Yoh Shan (Yaku-san,

died in 834); Ta Mei (Tai-bai, died in 839), a noted recluse; Ta Tsz

(Dai-ji, died in 862); Kwei Fung (Kei-ho, died in 841), the author of

'The Origin of Man,' and other numerous works; and Yun Ku (Un-go,

died in 902).

To the period of the Five Dynasties (A.D. 907-959) belong such

teachers as Sueh Fung (Set-po, died in. 908); Huen Sha (Gen-sha, died

in 908); Yun Man (Un-mon, died in 949), the founder of the Yun Man

Sect; Shen Yueh (Zen-getsu, died in 912), a renowned Zen poet; Pu Tai

(Ho-tei, died in 916), well known for his peculiarities; Chang King

(Cho-kei, died in 932); Nan Yuen (Nan-in, died in 952); Pao Yen

(Ho-gen, died in 958), the founder of the Pao Yen Sect. During the

Sung dynasty (A.D. 960-1126) appeared such teachers as Yang Ki

(Yo-gi, died in 1049), the founder of the Yang Ki School of Zen; Sueh

Teu (Set-cho, died in 1052), noted for poetical works; Hwang Lung (O

ryu, died in 1069), the founder of the Hwang Lung School of Zen;

Hwang Lin (Ko-rin, died in 987); Tsz Ming (Ji-myo, died in 1040); Teu

Tsy (To-shi, died in 1083); Fu Yun (Fu-yo, died in 1118); Wu Tsu

(Go-so, died in 1104); Yung Ming (Yo-myo, died in 975), the author of

Tsung King Luh (Shu-kyo-roku); Ki Sung (Kai-su, died in 1071), a

great Zen historian and author. In the Southern Sung dynasty (A.D.

1127-1279) flourished such masters as Yuen Wu (En-go, died in 1135),

the author of Pik Yen Tsih (Heki-gan-shu); Chan Hieh (Shin-ketsu,

flourished in 1151); Hung Chi (Wan-shi, died in 1157), famous for his

poetical works; Ta Hwui (Dai-e, died in 1163), a noted disciple of

Yuen Wu; Wan Sung (Ban-sho), flourished in 1193-1197), the author of

Tsung Yun Luh (Sho-yo-roku); Ju Tsing (Nyo-jo), died in 1228), the

teacher to Do-gen, or the founder of the So-to Sect in Japan.

To this age belong almost all the eminent men of letters,

statesmen, warriors, and artists who were known as the practisers of

Zen. To this age belongs the production of almost all Zen

books, doctrinal and historical.

Among the great names of Zen believers the following are

most important: Pang Yun (Ho-on, flourished in 785-804), whose whole

family was proficient in Zen; Tsui Kiun (Sai-gun, flourished in

806-824); Luh Kang (Rik-ko), a lay disciple to Nan Tsun; Poh Loh Tien

(Haku-raku-ten, died in 847), one of the greatest Chinese literary

men; Pei Hiu (Hai-kyu, flourished 827-856), the Prime Minister under

the Emperor Suen Tsung, a lay disciple to Hwang Pah; Li Ngao (Ri-ko,

lived about 806), an author and scholar who practised Zen under Yoh

Shan; Yu Chuh (U-teki, flourished 785-804), a local governor, a

friend of Pang Yun; Yang Yih (Yo-oku, flourished in 976), one of the

greatest writers of his age; Fan Chung Ngan (Han-chu an, flourished

1008-1052), an able statesman and scholar; Fu Pih (Fu shitsu,

flourished 1041-1083), a minister under the Emperor Jan Tsung; Chang

Shang Ying (Cho-sho-yei, 1086-1122), a Buddhist scholar and a

statesman; Hwang Ting Kien (Ko-tei-ken, 1064-1094), a great poet; Su

Shih (So-shoku, died in 1101), a great man of letters, well known as

So-to-ba; Su Cheh (So-tetsu, died in 1112), a younger brother of

So-to-ba, a scholar and minister under the Emperor Cheh Tsung; Chang

Kiu Ching (Cho-Kyu-sei, flourished about 1131), a scholar and lay

disciple of Ta Hwui; Yang Kieh (Yo-ketsu, flourished 1078-1086), a

scholar and statesman.

Of doctrinal Zen books, besides Sin Sin Ming by the Third

Patriarch, and Fah Pao Tan King by the Sixth Patriarch, the following

are of great importance:

(1) Ching Tao Ko (Sho-do-ka), by Huen Kioh (Gen-kaku).

(2) Tsan Tung Ki (San-do-kai), by Shih Ten (Seki-to).

(3) Pao King San Mei (Ho-kyo-san-mai), by Tung Shan (To-zan).

(4) Chwen Sin Pao Yao (Den-sin-ho-yo), by Hwang Pah (O-baku).

(5) Pih Yen Tsih (Heki-gan-shu), by Yuen Wu (En-go).

(6) Lin Tsi Luh (Rin-zai-roku), by Lin Tsi (Rin-zai).

(7) Tsung Yun Luh (Sho-yo-roku), by Wan Sung (Ban-sho).

Of historical Zen books the following are of importance:

(1) King teh Chwen Tan-Luh (Kei-toku-den-to-roku), published in 1004

by Tao Yuen (Do-gen).

(2) Kwan Tang Luh (Ko-to roku), published in 1036 by Li Tsun Suh


(3) Suh Tang Luh (Zoku-O-roku), published in 1101 by Wei Poh (I-haku).

(4) Lien Tang Luh (Ren-O-roku), published in 1183 by Hwui Wang


(5) Ching Tsung Ki (Sho-ju-ki), published in 1058 by Ki Sung


(6) Pu Tang Luh (Fu-O-roku), published in 1201 by Ching Sheu (Sho-ju).

(7) Hwui Yuen (E-gen), published in 1252 by Ta Chwen (Dai-sen).

(8) Sin Tang Luh (Sin-W-roku), published in 1280-1294 by Sui (Zui).

(9) Suh Chwen Tang Luh (Zoku-den-to-roku), by Wang Siu (Bun-shu).

(10) Hwui Yuen Suh Lioh (E-gen-zoku-ryaku), by Tsing Chu (Jo-chu).

(11) Ki Tang Luh (Kei-to-roku), by Yung Kioh (Yo-kaku).