Buddhism The Buddha Of Mercy
"Virtue may be assailed, but never hurt;
The Parable Of The Robber Kih
Chwang Tsz (So-shi) remarks in a humorous way to the followin...
Three Important Elements Of Zen
To understand how Zen developed during some four hundred year...
Calmness Of Mind
The Yogi breathing above mentioned is fit rather for physical...
The Establishment Of The Rin Zai School Of Zen In Japan
The Lin Tsi school was started by Nan Yoh, a prominent
Life Consists In Conflict
Life consists in conflict. So long as man remains a social a...
Man Is Good-natured According To Mencius
Oriental scholars, especially the Chinese men of letters, see...
The Development Of The Southern And Of The Northern School Of Zen
After the death of the Fifth Patriarch the venerable Shang Si...
Life And Change
A peculiar phase of life is change which appears in the form ...
Idealism Is A Potent Medicine For Self-created Mental Disease
In so far as Buddhist idealism refers to the world of sense, ...
The Four Alternatives And The Five Categories
There are, according to Zen, the four classes of religious an...
If there be no individual soul either in mind or body, where ...
Man Is Not Good-natured Nor Bad-natured But Buddha-natured
We have had already occasion to observe that Zen teaches
Nature And Her Lesson
Nature offers us nectar and ambrosia every day, and everywher...
Man Is Bad-natured According To Siun Tsz Jun-shi
The weaknesses of Mencius's theory are fully exposed by anoth...
Zazen Or The Sitting In Meditation
Habit comes out of practice, and forms character by degrees, ...
The Bad Are The Good In The Egg
This is not only the case with a robber or a murderer, but al...
Universal Life Is Universal Spirit
These considerations naturally lead us to see that Universal ...
The Honest Poverty Of The Zen Monk And The Samurai
Secondly, the so-called honest poverty is a characteristic of...
There Is No Mortal Who Is Purely Moral
By nature man should be either good or bad; or he should be g...
Bodhidharma And His Successor The Second Patriarch
China was not, however, an uncultivated land for the seed of
Zen--nay, there had been many practisers of Zen before Bodhidharma.
The translation of Hinayana Zen sutras first paved the way
for our faith. Fourteen Zen sutras, including such important books
as Mahanapanadhyana-sutra, Dhyanacarya-dharmasanyjnya-sutra,
Dhyanacarya-saptatrimcadvarga-sutra, were translated by Ngan Shi Kao
(An-sei-ko) as early as A.D. 148-170. Cullamargabhumi-sutra was
translated by K' Yao (Shi-yo) in A.D. 185; Dharmatara-dhyana-sutra by
Buddhabhadra in A.D. 398-421;
Dhyananisthitasamadhi-dharma-parygya-sutra by Kumarajiva in A.D. 402;
'An Abridged Law on the Importance of Meditation' by Kumarajiva in
A.D. 405; Pancadvara-dhyanasutra-maharthadharma by Dharmamitra in
A.D. 424-441. Furthermore, Mahayana books closely related to the
doctrine of Zen were not unknown to China before Bodhidharma.
Pratyutpanna-buddhasammukhavasthita-samadhi was translated by K' Leu
Cia Chan (Shi-ru-ga-sen) in A.D. 164-186; Vimalakirttinirdeca-sutra,
which is much used in Zen, by Kumarajiva in A.D. 384-412;
Lankavatara-sutra, which is said to have been pointed out by
Bodhidharma as the best explanation of Zen, by Gunabhadra in A.D.
433; Saddharma-pundarika-sutra, in its complete form, by Kumarajiva
in A.D. 406; Avatamsaka-sutra by Buddhabhadra in A.D. 418;
Mahaparinirvana-sutra by Dharmaraksa in A.D. 423.
If we are not mistaken, Kumarajiva, who came to China A.D. 384, made
a valuable contribution towards the foundation of Zen in that
country, not merely through his translation of Zen sutras above
mentioned, but by the education of his disciples, such as Sang Chao
(So-jo, died A.D. 414), Sang Shang (So-sho, whose writings
undoubtedly influenced later Zen teachers. A more important
personage in the history of Zen previous to the Blue-eyed Brahmin is
Buddhabhadra, a well-known Zen master, who came over to China A.D.
406. His translation of Dharmatara-dhyana-sutra (which is said to
have been preached by Bodhidharma himself when he was in India) and
that of Avatamsaka-sutra may be said without exaggeration to have
laid the corner-stone for Zen. He gave a course of lectures on the
Zen sutra for the first time in China in A.D. 413, and it was through
his instruction that many native practisers of Zen were produced, of
whom Chi Yen (Chi-gon) and Huen Kao (Gen-ko) are well known. In
these days Zen should have been in the ascendant in India, because
almost all Indian scholars-at least those known to us-were called Zen
teachers-for instance, Buddhabhadra, Buddhasena, Dharmadhi, and some
others were all Zen scholars.
Chinese Buddhist scholars did no less than Indian teachers toward the
uprising of Zen. The foremost among them is Hwui Yuen (E-on, died
A.D. 414), who practised Zen by the instruction of Buddhabhadra. He
founded the Society of the White Lotus, which comprised eighteen
eminent scholars of the age among its members, for the purpose of
practising Meditation and of adoring Buddha Amitabha. We must not
forget that during the Western and the Eastern Tsin (Shin) dynasties
(A.D. 265-420) both Taoism and Buddhism grew prosperous to no small
extent. And China produced, on the one hand, Taoists of an eccentric
type, such as the Seven Wise Men of the Bamboo Forest, while she gave
birth to many recluse-like men of letters, such as Tao Yuen Ming
(To-yen-mei, died A.D. 427) and some others on the other. Besides
there were some scholars who studied Buddhism in connection with
Taoism and Confucianism, and led a secluded life. To the last class
of scholars belonged Chwen Hih (Hu dai shi), known as Chwen the
Great. He is said to have been accustomed to wear a Confucianist
hat, a Buddhist robe, and Taoist shoes. It was in A.D. 534 that he
presented a memorial to the Emperor Wu, in which he explained the
three grades of good. "The Highest Good consists," says he, "in the
emptiness of mind and non-attachment. Transcendence is its cause,
and Nirvana is its result. The Middle Good consists in morality and
good administration. It results in a peaceful and happy life in
Heaven and in Earth. The Lowest Good consists in love and protection
of sentient beings." Thus his idea of good, as the reader will see
without difficulty, is the result of a compromise of Taoism and
Buddhism. Sin Wang Ming (Sin-o-mei, On the Mind-King), one of his
masterpieces, together with other minor poems, are still used as a
textbook of Zen. This fact unmistakably proves that Taoist element
found its way into the constituents of Zen from its very outset in
All that he had to do was to wait for an earnest seeker after the
spirit of Shakya Muni. Therefore he waited, and waited not in vain,
for at last there came a learned Confucianist, Shang Kwang (Shin-ko)
by name, for the purpose of finding the final solution of a problem
which troubled him so much that he had become dissatisfied with
Confucianism, as it had no proper diet for his now spiritual hunger.
Thus Shang Kwang was far from being one of those half-hearted
visitors who knocked the door of Bodhidharma only for the sake of
curiosity. But the silent master was cautious enough to try the
sincerity of a new visitor before admitting him to the Meditation
Hall. According to a biography of his, Shang Kwang was not
allowed to enter the temple, and had to stand in the courtyard
covered deep with snow. His firm resolution and earnest desire,
however, kept him standing continually on one spot for seven days and
nights with beads of the frozen drops of tears on his breast. At
last he cut off his left arm with a sharp knife, and presented it
before the inflexible teacher to show his resolution to follow the
master even at the risk of his life. Thereupon Bodhidharma admitted
him into the order as a disciple fully qualified to be instructed in
the highest doctrine of Mahayanism.
King Teh Chwen Tang Luh (Kei-toku-den-to-roku), published by
Tao Yuen (Do-gen) A.D. 1004, gives a detailed narrative concerning
this incident as stated here, but earlier historians tell us a
different story about the mutilation of Shang Kwang's arm. Compare
Suh Kas San Chwen (Zoku-ko-so-den) and Hwui Yuen (E-gen).
Our master's method of instruction was entirely different from that
of ordinary instructors of learning. He would not explain any
problem to the learner, but simply help him to get enlightened by
putting him an abrupt but telling question. Shang Kwang, for
instance, said to Bodhidharma, perhaps with a sigh: "I have no peace
of mind. Might I ask you, sir, to pacify my mind?" "Bring out your
mind (that troubles you so much)," replied the master, "here before
me! I shall pacify it." "It is impossible for me," said the
disciple, after a little consideration, "to seek out my mind (that
troubles me so much)." "Then," exclaimed Bodhidharma, "I have
pacified your mind." Hereon Shang Kwang was instantly Enlightened.
This event is worthy of our notice, because such a mode of
instruction was adopted by all Zen teachers after the first
patriarch, and it became one of the characteristics of Zen.
Next: Bodhidharma's Disciples And The Transmission Of The Law
Previous: Bodhidharma And The Emperor Wu