Buddhism Bodhidharma And His Successor The Second Patriarch
China was not, however, an uncultivated land for the seed of
The Disciples Under The Sixth Patriarch
Some time after this the Sixth Patriarch settled himself down...
Everything Is Living According To Zen
Everything alive has a strong innate tendency to preserve its...
A Sutra Equal In Size To The Whole World
The holy writ that Zen masters admire is not one of parchment...
Enlightenment Implies An Insight Into The Nature Of Self
We cannot pass over, however, this weighty problem without sa...
The Establishment Of The Rin Zai School Of Zen In Japan
The Lin Tsi school was started by Nan Yoh, a prominent
Difficulties Are No Match For The Optimist
How can we suppose that we, the children of Buddha, are put a...
Let Go Of Your Idle Thoughts
A famous Zenist, Mu-go-koku-shi, is said to have replied ...
The Bad Are The Good In The Egg
This is not only the case with a robber or a murderer, but al...
Zazen Or The Sitting In Meditation
Habit comes out of practice, and forms character by degrees, ...
Zazen And The Forgetting Of Self
Zazen is a most effectual means of destroying selfishness, th...
The Parable Of A Drunkard
Now the question arises, If all human beings are endowed with...
Buddha Dwelling In The Individual Mind
Enlightened Consciousness in the individual mind acquires for...
The Introduction Of The So-to School Of Zen
This school was started by Tsing-Yuen (Sei-gen), an emine...
Buddha Is Unnamable
Give a definite name to Deity, He would be no more than what ...
The Progress And Hope Of Life
How many myriads of years have passed since the germs of life...
The Social State Of Japan When Zen Was Established By Ei-sai And Do-gen
Now we have to observe the condition of the country when Zen ...
The Parable Of The Monk And The Stupid Woman
The confused or unenlightened may be compared with a monk and...
The World Is In The Making
Our assertion is far from assuming that life is now complete,...
The Betterment Of Life
Again, people nowadays seem to feel keenly the wound of the
Man Is Bad-natured According To Siun Tsz Jun-shi
The weaknesses of Mencius's theory are fully exposed by another
diametrically opposed theory propounded by Siun Tsz (Jun-shi) and his
followers. 'Man is bad-natured,' says Siun Tsz, 'since he has inborn
lust, appetite, and desire for wealth. As he has inborn lust and
appetite, he is naturally given to intemperance and wantonness. As
he has inborn desire for wealth, he is naturally inclined to quarrel
and fight with others for the sake of gain.' Leave him without
discipline or culture, he would not be a whit better than the beast.
His virtuous acts, such as charity, honesty, propriety, chastity,
truthfulness, are conduct forced by the teachings of ancient sages
against his natural inclination. Therefore vices are congenial and
true to his nature, while virtues alien and untrue to his fundamental
Siun Tsz's date is later by some fifty years than Mencius.
Siun Tsz gives the reason why man seeks after morality, saying that
man seeks what he has not, and that he seeks after morality simply
because he has not morality, just as the poor seek riches. See 'A
History of Chinese Philosophy' (pp. 51-60), by G. Nakauchi, and 'A
History of Development of Chinese Thought,' by R. Endo.
These two theories are not only far from throwing light on the moral
state of man, but wrap it in deeper gloom. Let us raise a few
questions by way of refutation. If man's fundamental nature be good,
as Mencius maintains, why is it easy for him to be vicious without
instruction, while he finds it hard to be virtuous even with
instruction. If you contend that good is man's primary nature and
evil the secondary one, why is be so often overpowered by the
secondary nature? If you answer saying that man is good-natured
originally, but he acquires the secondary nature through the struggle
for existence, and it gradually gains power over the primary nature
by means of the same cause, then the primitive tribes should be more
virtuous than the highly civilized nations, and children than grownup
people. Is this not contrary to fact?
If, again, man's nature is essentially bad, as Siun Tsz holds, how
can he cultivate virtue? If you contend that ancient sages invented
so-called cardinal virtues and inculcated them against his natural
inclination, why does he not give them up? If vices be congenial and
true to man's nature, but virtues be alien and untrue to him, why are
virtues honoured by him? If vices be genuine and virtue a deception,
as you think, why do you call the inventors of that deceiving art
sages? How was it possible for man to do good before these sages'
appearance on earth?
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