Samurai The Ancient Buddhist Pantheon
The ancient Buddhist pantheon was full of deities or Buddhas,...
The Betterment Of Life
Again, people nowadays seem to feel keenly the wound of the
Decline Of Zen
The blooming prosperity of Zen was over towards the end of th...
The Disciples Under The Sixth Patriarch
Some time after this the Sixth Patriarch settled himself down...
Let Go Of Your Idle Thoughts
[FN#263] A famous Zenist, Mu-go-koku-shi, is said to ha...
Man Is Both Good-natured And Bad-natured According To Yan Hiung
According to Yang Hiung and his followers, good is no less re...
Personalism Of B P Bowne
B. P. Bowne[FN#204] says: They (phenomena) are not phantoms o...
The Next Step In The Mental Training
In the next place we have to strive to be the master of our b...
The Errors Of Philosophical Pessimists And Religious Optimists
Philosophical pessimists[FN#214] maintain that there are on e...
The Sermon Of The Inanimate
The Scripture of Zen is written with facts simple and familia...
Thing-in-itself Means Thing-knowerless
How, then, did philosophers come to consider reality to be un...
Life And Change
Transformation and change are the essential features of life;...
The Eternal Life As Taught By Professor Munsterberg
Some philosophical pessimists undervalue life simply because ...
Man Is Not Good-natured Nor Bad-natured But Buddha-natured
We have had already occasion to observe that Zen teaches
Poetical Intuition And Zen
Since Universal Life or Spirit permeates the universe, the po...
The Buddha Of Mercy
Virtue may be assailed, but never hurt;
Nature Is The Mother Of All Things
Furthermore, man has come into existence out of Nature. He i...
The Irrationality Of The Belief Of Immortality
Occidental minds believe in a mysterious entity under the nam...
The Breathing Exercise Of The Yogi
Breathing exercise is one of the practices of Yoga, and somew...
Retribution In The Past The Present And The Future Life
Then a question suggests itself: If there be no soul that su...
Zen After The Downfall Of The Ho-jo Regency
Towards the end of the Ho-Jo period,[FN#90] and after the downfall of
the Regency in 1333, sanguinary battles were fought between the
Imperialists and the rebels. The former, brave and faithful as they
were, being outnumbered by the latter, perished in the field one
after another for the sake of the ill-starred Emperor Go-dai-go
(1319-1338), whose eventful life ended in anxiety and despair.
[FN#90] Although Zen was first favoured by the Ho-jo Regency and
chiefly prospered at Kama-kura, yet it rapidly began to exercise its
influence on nobles and Emperors at Kyo-to. This is mainly due to
the activity of En-ni, known as Sho-Ichi-Koku-Shi (1202-1280), who
first earned Zen under Gyo-yu, a disciple of Ei-sai, and afterwards
went to China, where he was Enlightened under the instruction of Wu
Chun, of the monastery of King Shan. After his return, Michi-iye
(Fuji-wara), a powerful nobleman, erected for him To-fuku-ji in 1243,
and he became the founder of a sub-sect of the Rin Zai, named after
that monastery. The Emperor Go-saga (1243-1246), an admirer of his,
received the Moral Precepts from him. One of his disciples, To-zan,
became the spiritual adviser of the Emperor Fushi-mi (1288-1298), and
another disciple, Mu kwan, was created the abbot of the monastery of
Nan-zen-ji by the Emperor Kame-yama (1260-1274), as the founder of a
sub-sect of the Rin Zai under the same name.
Another teacher who gained lasting influence on the Court is Nan-po,
known as Dai-O-Koku-Shi (1235-1308), who was appointed the abbot of
the monastery of Man-ju-ji in Kyo to by the Emperor Fushi-mi. One of
his disciples, Tsu-o, was the spiritual adviser to both the Emperor
Hana-zono (1308-1318) and the Emperor Go-dai-go. And another
disciple, Myo-cho, known as Dai-To-Koku-Shi (1282-1337), also was
admired by the two Emperors, and created the abbot of Dai-toku-ji, as
the founder of a sub-sect of the Rin Zai under the same name. It was
for Myo-cho's disciple, Kan-zan (1277 1360), that the Emperor
Hana-zono turned his detached palace into a monastery, named
Myo-shin-ji, the head temple of a sub-sect of the Rin Zai under the
It was at this time that Japan gave birth to Masa-shige (Kusu-noki),
an able general and tactician of the Imperialists, who for the sake
of the Emperor not only sacrificed himself and his brother, but by
his will his son and his son's successor died for the same cause,
boldly attacking the enemy whose number was overwhelmingly great.
Masa-shige's loyalty, wisdom, bravery, and prudence are not merely
unique in the history of Japan, but perhaps in the history of man.
The tragic tale about his parting with his beloved son, and his
bravery shown at his last battle, never fail to inspire the Japanese
with heroism. He is the best specimen of the Samurai class.
According to an old document,[FN#91] this Masa-shige was the
practiser of Zen, and just before his last battle he called on Chu
Tsun (So-shun) to receive the final instruction. What have I to do
when death takes the place of life? asked Masa-shige. The teacher
Be bold, at once cut off both ties,
The drawn sword gleams against the skies.
Thus becoming, as it were, an indispensable discipline for the
Samurai, Zen never came to an end with the Ho-jo period, but grew
more prosperous than before during the reign[FN#92] of the Emperor
Go-dai-go, one of the most enthusiastic patrons of the faith.
[FN#91] The event is detailed at length in a life of So-shun, but
some historians suspect it to be fictitious. This awaits a further
[FN#92] As we have already mentioned, Do-gen, the founder of the
Japanese So To Sect, shunned the society of the rich and the
powerful, and led a secluded life. In consequence his sect did not
make any rapid progress until the Fourth Patriarch of his line,
Kei-zan (1268-1325) who, being of energetic spirit, spread his faith
with remarkable activity, building many large monasteries, of which
Yo-ko-ji, in the province of No-to, So-ji-ji (near Yokohama), one of
the head temples of the sect, are well known. One of his disciples,
Mei ho (1277-1350), propagated the faith in the northern provinces;
while another disciple, Ga-san (1275-1365), being a greater
character, brought up more than thirty distinguished disciples, of
whom Tai-gen, Tsu-gen, Mu-tan, Dai-tetsu, and Jip-po, are best known.
Tai-gen (died 1370) and big successors propagated the faith over the
middle provinces, while Tsu-gen (1332-1391) and his successors spread
the sect all over the north-eastern and south-western provinces.
Thus it is worthy of our notice that most of the Rin Zai teachers
confined their activities within Kamakura and Kyo-to, while the So To
masters spread the faith all over the country.
The Shoguns of the Ashi-kaga period (1338-1573) were not less devoted
to the faith than the Emperors who succeeded the Emperor Go-dai-go.
And even Taka-uji (1338-1357), the notorious founder of the
Shogunate, built a monastery and invited So-seki,[FN#93] better known
as Mu-So-Koku-Shi, who was respected as the tutor by the three
successive Emperors after Go-dai-go. Taka-uji's example was followed
by all succeeding Shoguns, and Shogun's example was followed by the
feudal lords and their vassals. This resulted in the propagation of
Zen throughout the country. We can easily imagine how Zen was
prosperous in these days from the splendid monasteries[FN#94] built
at this period, such as the Golden Hall Temple and the Silver Hall
Temple that still adorn the fair city of Kyo-to.
[FN#93] So-seki (1276-1351) was perhaps the greatest Zen master of
the period. Of numerous monasteries built for him, E-rin-ji, in the
province of Kae, and Ten-ryu-ji, the head temple of a sub-sect of the
Rin Zai under the same name, are of importance. Out of over seventy
eminent disciples of his, Gi-do (1365-1388), the author of Ku-ge-shu;
Shun-oku (1331-1338), the founder of the monastery of So-koku-ji, the
head temple of a sub-sect of the Rin Zai under the same name; and
Zek-kai (1337-1405), author of Sho-ken-shu, are best known.
[FN#94] Myo-shin-ji was built in 1337 by the Emperor Hana-zono;
Ten-ryu-ji was erected by Taka-uji, the first Shogun of the period,
in 1344; So-koku-ji by Yosh-imitsu, the third Shogun, in 1385;
Kin-Kaku-ji, or Golden Hall Temple, by the same Shogun, in 1397;
Gin-kaku-ji, or Silver Hall Temple, by Yoshi-masa, the eighth Shogun,
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