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The Courage And The Composure Of Mind Of The Zen Monk And Of The Samurai
Fourthly, our Samurai encountered death, as is well known, wi...

Zen In The Dark Age
The latter half of the Ashikaga period was the age of arms an...

Thing-in-itself Means Thing-knowerless
How, then, did philosophers come to consider reality to be un...

The Beatitude Of Zen
We are far from denying, as already shown in the foregoing ch...

All The Worlds In Ten Directions Are Buddha's Holy Land
We are to resume this problem in the following chapter. Suff...

The Characteristics Of Do-gen The Founder Of The Japanese So To Sect
In the meantime seekers after a new truth gradually began to ...

Life And Change
Transformation and change are the essential features of life;...

The Theory Of Buddha-nature Adequately Explains The Ethical States Of Man
This theory of Buddha-nature enables us to get an insight int...

There Is No Mortal Who Is Purely Moral
By nature man should be either good or bad; or he should be g...

Enlightenment Implies An Insight Into The Nature Of Self
We cannot pass over, however, this weighty problem without sa...

Zazen And The Forgetting Of Self
Zazen is a most effectual means of destroying selfishness, th...

Idealism Is A Potent Medicine For Self-created Mental Disease
In so far as Buddhist idealism refers to the world of sense, ...

Bodhidharma's Disciples And The Transmission Of The Law[fn#31]
[FN#31] For details, see Chwen Tang Luh and Den Ka Roku, b...

The Usual Explanation Of The Canon
An eminent Chinese Buddhist scholar, well known as Ten Dai Da...

Change As Seen By Zen
Zen, like Hinayanism, does not deny the doctrine of Transienc...

Zen And Nirvana
The beatitude of Zen is Nirvana, not in the Hinayanistic sens...

Life In The Concrete
Life in the concrete, which we are living, greatly differs fr...

The Development Of The Southern And Of The Northern School Of Zen
After the death of the Fifth Patriarch the venerable Shang Si...

The Next Step In The Mental Training
In the next place we have to strive to be the master of our b...

Where Does The Root Of The Illusion Lie?
Now let us examine where illusion lies hidden from the view o...




The Method Of Instruction Adopted By Zen Masters








Thus far we have described the doctrine of Zen inculcated by both
Chinese and Japanese masters, and in this chapter we propose to
sketch the practice of mental training and the method of practising
Dhyana or Meditation. Zen teachers never instruct their pupils by
means of explanation or argument, but urge them to solve by
themselves through the practice of Meditation such problems as--'What
is Buddha?' What is self?' 'What is the spirit of Bodhidharma?'
'What is life and death?' 'What is the real nature of mind?' and so
on. Ten Shwai (To-sotsu), for instance, was wont to put three
questions[FN#229] to the following effect: (1) Your study and
discipline aim at the understanding of the real nature of mind.
Where does the real nature of mind exist? (2) When you understand
the real nature of mind, you are free from birth and death. How can
you be saved when you are at the verge of death? (3) When you are
free from birth and death, you know where you go after death. Where
do you go when your body is reduced to elements? The pupils are not
requested to express their solution of these problems in the form of
a theory or an argument, but to show how they have grasped the
profound meaning implied in these problems, how they have established
their conviction, and how they can carry out what they grasped in
their daily life.


[FN#229] The famous three difficult questions, known as the Three
Gates of Teu Shwai (To Sotsu San Kwan), who died in 1091. See Mu Mon
Kwan, xlvii.


A Chinese Zen master[FN#230] tells us that the method of instruction
adopted by Zen may aptly be compared with that of an old burglar who
taught his son the art of burglary. The burglar one evening said to
his little son, whom he desired to instruct in the secret of his
trade: Would you not, my dear boy, be a great burglar like myself?
Yes, father, replied the promising young man. Come with me,
then. I will teach you the art. So saying, the man went out,
followed by his son. Finding a rich mansion in a certain village,
the veteran burglar made a hole in the wall that surrounded it.
Through that hole they crept into the yard, and opening a window with
complete ease broke into the house, where they found a huge box
firmly locked up as if its contents were very valuable articles. The
old man clapped his hands at the lock, which, strange to tell,
unfastened itself. Then he removed the cover and told his son to get
into it and pick up treasures as fast as he could. No sooner had the
boy entered the box than the father replaced the cover and locked it
up. He then exclaimed at the top of his voice: Thief! thief! thief!
thief! Thus, having aroused the inmates, he went out without taking
anything. All the house was in utter confusion for a while; but
finding nothing stolen, they went to bed again. The boy sat holding
his breath a short while; but making up his mind to get out of his
narrow prison, began to scratch the bottom of the box with his
finger-nails. The servant of the house, listening to the noise,
supposed it to be a mouse gnawing at the inside of the box; so she
came out, lamp in hand, and unlocked it. On removing the cover, she
was greatly surprised to find the boy instead of a little mouse, and
gave alarm. In the meantime the boy got out of the box and went down
into the yard, hotly pursued by the people. He ran as fast as
possible toward the well, picked up a large stone, threw it down into
it, and hid himself among the bushes. The pursuers, thinking the
thief fell into the well, assembled around it, and were looking into
it, while the boy crept out unnoticed through the hole and went home
in safety. Thus the burglar taught his son how to rid himself of
overwhelming difficulties by his own efforts; so also Zen teachers
teach their pupils how to overcome difficulties that beset them on
all sides and work out salvation by themselves.


[FN#230] Wu Tsu (Go So), the teacher of Yuen Wu (En Go).






Next: The First Step In The Mental Training

Previous: Do Thy Best And Leave The Rest To Providence



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